Today I would define my work as visual storytelling, because the pictures have been shot in many places, for many reasons, and in many situations… I try to be as involved as much as I can in reviewing and supervising the printing of my work, but many times the prints are printed and shipped when I am away. That is what happened in this case. It goes without saying that what happened with this image was a mistake for which I have to take responsibility. I have taken steps to change procedures at my studio which will prevent something like this from happening again. Steve McCurry, speaking to PetaPixel
Looking at the images, it seems to be a clear case of image manipulation, the sort of which plagues World Press Photo each year. Material portions have been removed from images. American photojournalists should recognize this as a clear violation of the NPPA Code of Ethics, specifically point 6: “Editing should maintain the integrity of the photographic images’ content and context.” It’s a serious charge and one that often results in the end of a photographer’s career. It’s also just disappointing to see McCurry, who has inspired and influenced so many serious photojournalists, involved in something so small and petty as photoshop manipulation. But these sorts of accusations and discussions really miss the point.
Magnum photographer Peter van Agtmael, writing on Time’s Lightbox site, delves a little deeper into the issues one should worry about regarding deception in photography. When talking about photojournalism (and journalism, generally), people tend to speak about “truth” and “objectivity.” Digital manipulation is a concern (though van Agtmael doesn’t think it’s a big worry, at least in this case), but trying to hold up a photo or body of work as a representation of truth or as an objective examination of a subject is a fool’s errand. A photographer’s conscious and unconscious biases are indivisible from the work they produce. A middle-aged, upper-class American white male’s photographs of India will necessarily be different from a young Indian woman’s photos of the same subject. The two photographers are operating from a different perspective and will choose different things to show in different ways. Van Agtmael writes, “We shouldn’t mistake something factual for something truthful, and we should always question which facts are employed, and how…. To capture something happening in a pinprick of time is inherently a limited means of understanding. Factor in history of representation, complex racial and identity politics, and the demographic breakdown of many World Press winners (white, western males, or those working for organizations dominated by them), and you end up with a very imperfect rendering of the world.” Van Agtmael has also responded to criticism of his piece on a public Facebook post by Time editor Olivier Laurent (embedded below):
I disagree with van Agtmael’s dismissal of the digital manipulation recently uncovered in McCurry’s work. McCurry’s work isn’t presented as digital illustrations, but rather to show something akin to “This is what the world looks like.” When he (or his employees) remove people from a photo, the photo is no longer connected to reality. This is clearly deception. The rest of van Agtmael’s argument is sound, though. It’s an extension of Anastasia Taylor-Lind’s incisive piece on Lightbox, How a lack of representation is hurting photojournalism. And it’s also worth revisiting Donald Weber’s great piece following the 2015 World Press Photo staging scandal: The Rules of Photojournalism Are Keeping Us From the Truth: Notes on a frozen art form from a World Press Photo juror and member of the VII photo agency. It’s easy to get lost in the deep weeds of epistemology. Truth is not an inherent property of an image that hasn’t been digitally manipulated or staged. And digitally manipulated or staged photos can present a subject in a way that is truthful. Photographers, editors, and the audience must consider the circumstances in which the photo was taken and presented to the public to determine whether it is an honest representation of the subject. This 2009 interview with Christopher Anderson by JM Colberg also contains some good discussion on the subject.
“To consider a place largely from the perspective of a permanent anthropological past, to settle on a notion of authenticity that edits out the present day, is not simply to present an alternative truth: It is to indulge in fantasy.” Teju Cole, A Too-Perfect Picture
There is more manipulation at hand in McCurry’s work than moving a few pixels around, and it’s more difficult to point to than obvious photoshopping. I’ve written previously about the insidious idea of the “noble savage” in photography, and McCurry is a longtime practitioner of the genre. You could maybe even call him the modern inventor of it. For decades, his stock and trade has been the dignified poor person in a far-off land untouched by modernity, gazed upon with admiration and pity by a wealthy western audience. His most recent book, India, as well as his touring exhibitions feature these sorts of images almost exclusively. And sometimes, his work uses dark-skinned foreigners as props behind white people to sell luxury goods.
Teju Cole, writing for the New York Times Magazine, delivers a useful critique: “To consider a place largely from the perspective of a permanent anthropological past, to settle on a notion of authenticity that edits out the present day, is not simply to present an alternative truth: It is to indulge in fantasy.” Cole loses the thread a little, I think, by focusing on images that appear to perfectly composed as to almost be posed–compositional beauty is useful in drawing in viewers–but the rest of his critique is worth reading. He’s also careful to note than an outsider’s perspective is not always appropriative or otherwise problematic. But McCurry’s is. Even without the photoshopping, his work his misleading. McCurry’s work presents a quaint and orientalist vision of the world that is divorced from reality. That, too, is a violation of the NPPA Code of Ethics, but this time it’s the very first rule: “Be accurate and comprehensive in the representation of subjects,” and the third: “Be complete and provide context when photographing or recording subjects. Avoid stereotyping individuals and groups. Recognize and work to avoid presenting one’s own biases in the work.”
Teju Cole’s critique drew out some defenders of McCurry’s work, most notably PhotoShelter co-founder Allen Murabayashi’s “In Defense of Steve McCurry” (also posted to PetaPixel, from where it was widely shared and where there are many comments). Murabayashi rightly counters Cole’s critique of well-composed images, but misses the greater deception and disservice presented by McCurry’s western gaze. The discussion at the Online Photographer is worth reading, as is the discussion at Reddit’s /r/photography subreddit. The Online Photographer discussion offers different perspectives on the idea of whether McCurry’s work fundamentally misrepresents India. The Reddit discussion is an eye-opening view of whether or not eliminating digital manipulation will restore any credibility to photojournalism. The top rated comment there includes this line, “He is an editorial photographer. Which means the goal of his pictures is to make illustrations along a story/article. If the pictures underline the article then he did a good job.” Lewis Bush also has good analysis of McCurry’s work on the disphotic blog.
“McCurry’s questionable ethic draws on subjects who seem happy (perhaps) to be photographed by a foreign tourist who wants to build on a fetish of the underdeveloped world and its supposed charms.” Paroma Mukherjee, A Trip Around Steve McCurry’s Photoshopped World
These are all criticisms made by westerners, and it’s worth considering the Indian perspective. I’ve found one recent piece about McCurry’s work written by Indian photo editor and photographer Paroma MukherjeeA Trip Around Steve McCurry’s Photoshopped World. Mukherjee writes, “[McCurry’s] gaze is imperialist and his understanding of the locations he visits poor, but his confidence and marketing skills – dazzling…. Over the years, I began to despise his idea of India too…. McCurry’s questionable ethic draws on subjects who seem happy (perhaps) to be photographed by a foreign tourist who wants to build on a fetish of the underdeveloped world and its supposed charms.”
Mukherjee also notes that McCurry dodged questions about his “outsider gaze and aesthetic” at recent promotional events in India for his India book. I found a discussion about this (found via RAIOT) started by Indian photographer Aditya Arya on facebook (embedded below):
On the other hand, Anindita Ghose, writing for Vogue India, writes that McCurry’s work helps Indians see themselves better. Her article, A Selfie with Steve McCurry, praises his photographs, “They’re intuitive; they make no claims to a deeper understanding of context. And most importantly, they betray a genuine curiosity…Sometimes, we need an outsider to hold up a mirror to see ourselves better.” The final paragraph includes a quote from McCurry that I think sums up everything about why his approach and the resulting work is so fraught: “India is losing some of its Indianness.”
But after all of this discussion (and countless more on facebook, twitter, and elsewhere), Allen Murabayashi probably correctly reminds us, Your opinion of Steve McCurry doesn’t matter. McCurry will continue to get huge commissions, exhibitions, and print sales around the world, regardless of what any of us have to say about his work. Back to that reddit thread linked above, the top-rated comment ends, “I’d hang any of his pictures on my walls in contrast to most of those that criticise his work.”
Last year, World Press Photo and the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism published the results of an online survey of 1556 photographers who entered the 2015 World Press Photo annual competition, and the results are fascinating. The report, entitled The State of News Photography: The Lives andLivelihoods of Photojournalists in the Digital Age (← pdf), looks at the demographics of photographers, how for whom they work, how much they are paid, how the ethics of journalism and manipulation figure into their work, and other topics. The whole report is worth a look.
Particularly interesting in the report are the breakdowns of photojournalists by gender. Of the respondents, only 15% were women. Self-employment is much higher among women; 79.2% of women who responded to the survey are self-employed, while only 55.9% of men are. There is a higher percentage of female photographers than men in the lowest income bracket, earning between $0 and $29,999 from photography, and likewise proportionally fewer women than men in the highest income bracket reported in the study.
Of course, this is not a new problem, nor, frankly, is it surprising. I wrote about the issue in 2013, when a tumblr post by Daniel Shea, called On Sexism in Editorial Photography, went viral. Shea’s post has disappeared, but it’s preserved on the dvafoto tumblr, and it’s worth revisiting. Likewise, some of the links in my post about Shea’s piece have been lost to history, but many still exist and still deserve consideration. Looking at the WPP/Reuters Institute survey, it seems like things haven’t changed much since 2013.
There is one possibly positive note on the gender disparity in photojournalism in the WPP/Reuters Institute report. 49.6% of women who responded said that they “mostly” have control over the editing and production of their work. Only 37.9% of men said the same. The report attributes this to the self-employed/employee results in the survey, but it’s nice to see that 88.7% of women report “sometimes” or “mostly” having authority over their own work.
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